Tuesday, November 29, 2016


John the Baptist -- Bernard Strigel (1461-1528)
The traditional color for the Season of Advent is purple. Increasingly, however, blue is used as an alternative, and this reflects a significant change in thinking, a change embodied in the Revised Common Lectionary. In part Advent is like Lent – a penitential season when our thoughts should be focused on the great, but awesome, themes of sin and redemption. In Cranmer’s original Book of Common Prayer, and in the versions that followed for many centuries, the Sunday lessons throughout Advent had the “Last Things” as their unifying theme – death, judgment and the Second Coming of Christ.
In the Revised Common Lectionary, by contrast, on the last Sunday in Advent we switch from death to birth, when the Gospel of the day begins the Christmas story. This is not mere convenience. This year’s Gospel for the second Sunday of Advent demonstrates just how closely the Second Coming and the First are connected. John the Baptist, warns his hearers of judgment in the sternest language -- "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?” – and he urges them to repent because “the kingdom of God is at hand”. This is the stuff of the Second Coming and of old-style Advent. But then, almost immediately, he turns their attention to the First Coming when he tells them that “one who is more powerful than I is coming after me”.
The fact is, God’s time is not our time. Strictly, in the eternal God there is neither ‘before’ nor ‘after’. Incarnation and Judgment are two sides of a single divine act. The ‘baby in the manger’ is at one and very the same time ‘Christ in his glorious majesty’. The trouble, though, is that we have become so comfortable with the homely image of the baby, we need several weeks to remind us that his coming is a challenge to the comfortable non-judgmentalism that the modern world holds dear.
Last Judgment - Wassily Kandinsky
Once again the child messiah will indeed inaugurate Isaiah’s vision of the ‘holy mountain’ where nothing is hurt or destroyed. But he does so because his ‘delight shall be in the fear of the LORD. He shall not judge by what his eyes see, or decide by what his ears hear, but with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked’. This doesn't cohere very well with the image of a baby, and fits rather better with 'hellfire' preaching. Yet this is the ultimate message of Christmas.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016


On Advent Sunday a new cycle of readings begins and the Gospel passages move from Luke to Matthew, mostly.  But on Advent Sunday itself, this change is not so very significant. Whatever the year, the readings for the first Sunday in Advent are always powerfully apocalyptic – all about the end of time and the final judgment.

It is belief in a beginning and an end to time that differentiates the great religions of the book from the religions of the East. Whereas for Buddhism and Hinduism salvation lies in escape from the endless round of existence, for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, history is the context within which God brings about the redemption of the world. Yet, generally speaking, compared to Christians in centuries past educated people nowadays have great difficulty in believing in an apocalyptic end to time. Moreover, the popularity in certain quarters of 'the Rapture' and 'left behind' theology has resulted in 'adventism' being regarded, even by committed mainline Christians, as a belief for religious fanatics or obsessives. Still, the doctrine of the Second Coming  and the Last Judgment cannot be set aside as exotic inventions. Here they are, right in the appointed Common Lectionary. So what should we think about them? How are they best understood?

The first point to emphasize is that, despite the frequency (and enthusiasm) with which people have tried to predict ‘the end of time’, Jesus is quite clear -- “about that day and hour no one knows, neither the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father”. In other words, all this will happen in God’s time, not ours. Secondly, ‘if the owner of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into’. The message seems to be this: don't try to predict the end of time, but always be aware of its possibility. It is not prediction, but readiness that matters.

Since each of us has our own ‘end of time’ – the hour of our death -- this makes sense. It does not matter when God brings the whole of history to a close, if we have met the end of own lives quite unprepared.
Suppose with the inevitability of death in mind, we take the message of Advent to heart. What then are we to do by way of preparation? The Epistle for this week has the answer ‘You know what time it is now, how it is the moment for you to wake from sleep. Let us then lay aside the works of darkness and put on the armor of light; let us live honorably as in the day’. The passage from Isaiah puts it even more simply ‘Come, let us walk in the light of the LORD!’ The world regularly confronts us with the choice of letting our thoughts and actions be exposed to the light, or hiding them in some form of darkness. The 'moment’ to choose light over dark is perpetually 'now'.
The two illustrations --  The Last Judgement and The Alpha are works by Ende, a 10th century female Spanish manuscript illuminator. 

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

CHRIST THE KING (Reign of Christ) 2016

Christ in Nails
The Revised Common Lectionary that has now been widely adopted across the world celebrates the last Sunday of the Church’s year as 'The Feast of Christ the King' (or 'The Reign of Christ'). Thirty years ago this feast would have been almost unknown to the Anglican Communion. Even for Roman Catholics it is not a very longstanding observation, being added to the Calendar as recently as 1925.
Yet celebrating Christ as King is an especially appropriate way to conclude the Christian year. Faithful observance of the Church Calendar enables those who follow it to live through the cosmic story of humanity’s salvation. We start out  languishing under judgement (Advent). In that condition God comes to dwell among us, and is made manifest to the world (Christmas and Epiphany). This incarnate God calls us to a time of repentance (Lent), but because of our own inability to save ourselves, comes in great love to die for our salvation (Passiontide and Good Friday). In a mighty and glorious demonstration of saving power, God raises Christ Jesus (Easter), and returns to the heavenly places (Ascension), while continuing to strengthen us with his Holy Spirit (Pentecost).
Christ in Silence - Odilon Redon
Reflecting on this narrative of salvation, we can see that, despite many appearances to the contrary, the God in whom necessarily ‘we live and move and have our being’, has given final authority over human kind to Jesus Christ. Yet, as the Gospel for this week so powerfully reminds us, Christ’s Kingdom signals a complete reversal of the values of worldly power that so evidently shape and influence our political life. Where the State relies on coercive power for its security, the path that Jesus pursues (to quote this week’s Epistle), is “making peace through the blood of his cross”.
In last year's lectionary, the Gospel text focussed on Christ as the supreme judge of 'sheep' and 'goats'.  This year, by contrast, we have a section of Luke's passion narrative. Jesus is truly “Christ the King”, but his 'throne', it turns out, is a place of torture, and his 'crown' is made of thorns. This casts a quite different light on what it means to pray sincerely for the coming of the Kingdom of God in Christ. Before doing so, we we must first grasp just how different it is to all worldly authorities – be they ancient empires, military dictatorships or modern democratic Republics. At times of political success and failure, it is hard to remember Mary's magnificat, that with the advent of Christ, God "casts down the mighty from their seats and exalts the humble and meek."

Thursday, November 10, 2016

PENTECOST XXVI (Proper 28) 2016

Destruction of the Temple - Nicholas Poussin

As Advent approaches, the Lectionary readings take on a more apocalyptic tone, with warnings about turbulent times ahead, religious persecution, and finally, the end of history in preparation for the transformation of the world. Since the Gospel passage was written after the destruction of the temple, it was written with hindsight. Luke knew that the warning was for real. Like the other evangelists, however, he places these warnings just before the passion narrative begins. So the story of persecution and suffering starts with Jesus himself. His 'followers' are just that -- people who follow in his footsteps.

Clowns of War Arguing in Hell -- Jose Orozco
As recent events amply demonstrate, modern times are no less turbulent than the days of the Roman Empire. There are plenty of 'wars and insurrections', 'nation still rises against nation', every year there are 'great earthquakes, and 'in various places famines and plagues'. Even stable and prosperous societies can become deeply divided. In the United States and Europe followers of Christ are more likely to be held in contempt than persecuted, but in the wider world Christians are more often  the victims of violence and persecution than the adherents of any other religion. So the events predicted in the Gospel are easy to believe. But what of the spectacular end to which all these trials were supposed to be a prelude? Don't we know now that these things are neither 'dreadful portents' nor 'great signs', but simply recurrent, disturbing and lamentable features of life on earth?

In this same passage Jesus says 'Beware that you are not led astray' by people who say 'The time is near!' 'Do not go after them', he tells us, because 'the end will not follow immediately.' 'I am about to create new heavens and a new earth', God declares through the prophet Isaiah in the Old Testament lesson. But we need to view this promise through the perspective of eternity. Whether we like it or not, God's time is not our time. 'In your sight a thousand years are as the passing of one day', Psalm 90 says. The task of true disciples is not to second guess God, but to say, in the face of everything, 'Surely God is my salvation; I will trust, and will not be afraid, for the LORD GOD is my strength and my might; he has become my salvation'. In this spirit, the challenge is to fix their gaze firmly on the Christ of the Cross who has gone there before them.

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

PENTECOST XXV (Proper 27) 2016

Kandinsky -- All Saints

For many people, both those who are religious and those who aren't, belief in God and the hope for life after death are closely connected. Indeed, for some people the belief in God seems pointless unless it is connected with surviving death. So it is instructive to hear about the Sadducees in this week's Gospel passage.  The Sadducees are less familiar than the Pharisees, but they too were a sect of devout Jews at the time of Jesus. Passionately committed to the worship of God, they nevertheless denied the existence of life after death. They subscribed to a long held Jewish view that God's blessing and our enjoyment of it are confined to this life, and that the real hope of life after death must reside in the generations who succeed us -- 'Abraham and his seed for ever'.

In the passage from Luke the Sadducees pose a riddle to Jesus that they could just as easily have posed to the Pharisees. Their aim is to show that the idea of life after death speedily reduces to paradox. Jesus' response to them does not try to resolve the puzzle. Rather, he casts a different perspective on the belief in immortality. It is wrong to think of the life to come as just like this one, only better and longer. It is altogether a different kind of existence. People are changed, and, like angels, dwell in the presence of the eternal God. The God in whose presence they dwell -- then and now -- is the God of Abraham and the God of Moses who spoke out of the burning bush. So life after death is not a restoration of what has been, and thus a return to  normality. It is a continuation into perfection of the eternal life that we begin when we believe in Christ.

Job  - Jacob Jordaens (1620)

St Paul, addressing the Thessalonians, connects life after death with the Second Coming of Jesus and the judgement of the world. He warns them, however, against the temptation to anticipate it and make it their principal hope. He reminds them of what they have and are now -- chosen 'as the first fruits for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit' and called to proclaim the good news, so that they may 'obtain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ'. The lesson is not to become all otherworldly, but to 'stand firm and hold fast' in this world, enjoying the grace of God 'in every good work and word'. It is from this standpoint that Christians can repeat the words of Job: 'I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth. . . . then in my flesh I shall see God'